Effects of Desalted Deep Seawater on Hematologic and Blood Chemical Values in Mice

Variables hematológicas en ratones (pdf) 

Various processed foods and beverages have been manufactured using deep seawater (DSW), desalted DSW (dDSW), and concentrated DSW in Japan. To confirm the safety of dDSW, we investigated hematologic and blood chemical effects of dDSW in mice. The dDSW and desalted surface seawater (dSSW) were diluted to 6.7%, 10%, and 20% with purified water. BALB/c mice were housed for 12 weeks, and administered the diluted dDSW, dSSW, or purified water as a control during the period. The results for dDSW were compared with those for dSSW and purified water. None of the groups of mice showed any clear abnormal growth or behavior; neither did any show signs of illness nor a single case of death during the 12 weeks study. We found no significant differences between the dDSW and control groups in terms of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, and neutrophil counts, whereas white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the 10% dSSW group at the end of 4 and 12 weeks than those in the control group. A significantly higher triglyceride level was detected only in the 6.7% dSSW group. Our results show no evidence of acute or subacute effects of diluted dDSW. Effects of diluted dDSW on hematologic and blood chemical values in mice are thought to be similar to those of purified water. This finding suggests that dDSW is as safe as purified water for drinking water.

The application of deep sea water in Japan

Usos de agua de mar profunda en Japón (pdf)

Deep sea water (from a depth of more than 200 m) has cold temperature, abundant nutrients, and good water quality that is pathogen-free and stable. Basic research on the utilization of this water for fisheries in Japan began in 1976 and at present, deep-seawater pumping systems are established in Toyama and Kochi Prefectures and under construction in Shizuoka and Okinawa Prefectures. The research emphasis of many national organizations, prefectures, universities, and private companies is shifting from basic research to feasibility studies or practical applications of deep sea water. For example, in Kochi Prefecture, located in southern Japan, it was found that deep sea water is advantageous in the aquaculture of cold-water species. Current fisheries-related projects include:

• aquaculture (sea vegetables, fishes, shellfish, etc.)
• basic research on deep sea organisms
• restoration of sea grass habitats

A wide range of projects unrelated to fisheries that are utilizing deep sea water to develop new industries and contribute to local economies include:

• the food industry
• medical treatment facilities
• cooling water for power stations
• agriculture of cold climate vegetables

Future investigations should focus on further explorations of deep sea water attributes, a cascade system for using
deep sea water, reduction of costs, and potential environmental impacts.

Improvement of skin symptoms and mineral imbalance by drinking deep sea water in patients with atopic Eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)

Toma agua de mar Japón-artículo (pdf)

Deep sea water intake improves skin symptoms and mineral imbalance and decreases serum IgE levels mad IgEinducing cytokines, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-18 in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS), while distilled water intake fails to do so.

Magnesium (Mg) is involved in the regulation of immune responses. It has been reported that in Mg deficient rats, serum levels of substance P, histamine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were elevated. Mg deficiency also caused atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)-like symptoms in hairless rats.
We have previously reported that drinking of refined deep sea water that contains Mg as its main cation signigicantly reduces whole blood flow time and blood pressure in healthy volunteers. We have now studied the effect of drinking deep sea water on patients with AEDS.

An Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Survival of Escherichia coli in Sea Water

Sobrevivencia de E Coli en AM (PDF).

D’Hérelle (1926) suggested that bacteriophages contribute to the self-purification process in natural waters, but ZoBell (1946) reported that they occurred sporadically and only in the littoral zone and concluded that there was insufficient evidence for bacteriophages to be considered of importance in limiting the bacterial population of the open ocean. Nevertheless, it was repeatedly stated in the literature (Carlucci and Pramer, 1959) that bacteriophages contribute to the rapid death and paucity of bacteria in sea water. Recent studies (Kriss and Rukina, 1947; Spencer, 1955) have shown that bacteriophages are not limited to the littoral zone but occur at points distant from land and at depths as great as 2000 meters. The bacteriophage isolated (1955) and studied (1957) by Spencer was active against several strains of the luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum. It caused lysis of host cells on sea water agar but not on tap water agar and appeared to be indigenous to the sea.
The present report describes the occurrence, persistence, and activity of some bacteriophages in sea water.

Management of post-ethmoidectomy crust formation: Randomized single-blind clinical trial comparing pressurized seawater versus antiseptic/mucolytic saline

Rhinology-AM nasal (PDF).

This study compared the efficacy of mechanical nasal lavages with pressurized seawater versus nasal irrigations with saline plus benzododecinium (antiseptic) plus oleosorbate (mucolytic). Twenty patients agreed to participate in a randomized, single-blind clinical trial. All patients underwent endoscopic endonasal ethmoidectomy for nasal polyps. The packing was removed after 48 h and patients were asked to start the same day nasal lavages three times a day. Clinical evaluations were performed: (1) by weighing residual nasal crusts and secretions after 21 +/- 2 days; and (2) by using visual analogue scales to daily record symptom scores. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM. T-test statistics for two independent groups were applied. The mean residual crust and secretion weights were 1,756 +/- 688 mg and 1,033 +/- 422 mg in the pressurized seawater group, 932 +/- 414 mg and 1,222 +/- 435 mg in the antiseptic-mucolytic saline group. No statistical differences were found. Sample size calculations showed that 100 subjects in each group would be necessary to confirm a 700-mg reduction in residual crusts in the antiseptic/mucolytic saline group (power = 0.80; two-sided type-I error = 0.05). Daily symptom score curves were similar in both groups and allowed us to give a description of post-operative complaints. The role of antiseptic, mucolytic and mechanical lavages in preventing post-ethmoidectomy crust formation is discussed.

Anti-obesity and Antidiabetic Effects of Deep Sea Water on ob/ob Mice

Ratones obesos (PDF).

Recently, deep sea water (DSW) has started to receive much attention for therapeutic intervention in some lifestyle diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects of DSW in ob/ob mice were investigated. The animals were randomly divided into two groups with six animals: control group received tap water; the experimental group was treated with DSW of hardness 1000 for 84 days. The body weight gain after 84 days in DSW-fed group was decreased by 7% compared to the control group. The plasma glucose levels in the DSW-fed mice were substantially reduced by 35.4%, as compared to control mice. The results of oral glucose tolerance test revealed that DSW-fed groups significantly increased the glucose disposal after 84 days. DSW increased plasma protein levels of adiponectin and decreased plasma protein levels of resistin, RBP4, and fatty acid binding protein. Moreover, GLUT4 and AMP-activated protein kinase levels in skeletal muscle tissue were increased while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and adiponectin were decreased in adipose tissue of DSW-fed mice. These results suggest that the antidiabetic and anti-obesity activities of DSW were mediated by modulating the expression of diabetes- and obesity-specific molecules. Taken together, these results provide a possibility that continuous intake of DSW can ameliorate obesity and diabetes.

Efficacy of Isotonic Nasal Wash (Seawater) in the Treatment and Prevention of Rhinitis in Children

Physiomer-CT Lavado nasal 200 (PDF)

Objective: To evaluate the potential of nasal isotonic saline application to prevent reappearance of cold and
flu in children during the winter.
Design: Prospective, multicenter, parallel-group, open, and randomized comparison.
Setting: Eight pediatric outpatient clinics.
Patients: A total of 401 children (aged 6-10 years) with uncomplicated cold or flu.
Interventions:Werandomly assigned patients to 2 treatment groups, one with just standard medication, the other with nasal wash with a modified seawater solution (Physiomer) plus standard medication, and observed them for
12 weeks.
Conclusion: Children in the saline group showed faster resolution of some nasal symptoms during acute illness and less frequent reappearance of rhinitis subsequently.

Physiomer® reduces the chemokine interleukin-;8 production by activated human respiratory epithelial cells

Physiomer e IL8 (PDF).

The authors have recently shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor-B (NF-B) is a central mediator in the NaCl-mediated interleukin (IL)-;8 production by human airway epithelial cells. In this study, it was investigated whether Physiomer®, an isotonic sea water-derived solution commercialized for cleaning the nasal mucosa, impaired the chemokine IL-;8 expression and secretion by human respiratory epithelial cells compared with that obtained with an isotonic 9% NaCl solution.
Primary human bronchial gland (HBG) epithelial cells were incubated either in Physiomer® or in a NaCl 9% solution and activated either with 20 ng·mL–1 tumour necrosis factor-;, or IL-;1ß, respectively. Physiomer® significantly reduced the IL-;8 protein release in basal and activated HBGcells in comparison with that obtained with the 9% NaCl solution. In contrast to the effects of Physiomer® observed on restingHBG cells, Physiomer® did not significantly reduce the level of phosphorylation of the NF-B inhibitor protein IB or the steady-state IL-;8 messenger ribonucleic acid levels in activated HBG cells, suggesting that Physiomer® would have a post-transcriptional effect on IL-;8 expression in activated HBG cells. The authors conclude that Physiomer® is potentially useful in the reduction of airway mucosal inflammation.

Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored ‘‘rare biosphere’’

Microbios (PDF).

The evolution of marine microbes over billions of years predicts that the composition of microbial communities should be much greater than the published estimates of a few thousand distinct kinds of microbes per liter of seawater. By adopting a massively parallel tag sequencing strategy, we show that bacterial communities of deep water masses of the North Atlantic and diffuse flow hydrothermal vents are one to two orders of magnitude more complex than previously reported for any microbial environment. A relatively small number of different populations dominate all samples, but thousands of low-abundance populations account for most of the observed phylogenetic diversity. This ‘‘rare biosphere’’
is very ancient and may represent a nearly inexhaustible source of genomic innovation. Members of the rare biosphere are highly divergent from each other and, at different times in earth’s history, may have had a profound impact on shaping planetary processes.

Metabolic effects in rats drinking increasing concentrations of sea-water

Metabolic effects in rats drinking (PDF).

1. Research on laboratory rats confirmed that drinking sea-water when dehydrated, was not beneficial and caused impaired renal function.
2. When the concentration of sea-water in the drinking water is gradually increased there is a gradual increase in water uptake and corresponding urine excretion.
3. At 50% sea-water the maximum uptake and excretion is reached. Following this there is a decline in appetite, water uptake and urine secretion.
4. When on 100% sea-water, the creatinine clearances were greater than on tap water, while urine/plasma osmolalities (U/P) averaged 7. The only higher U /P was found in animals drinking sea-water when dehydrated, i.e. a U/P of 11.
5. The urea metabolism appears to be suited to either the need to conserve body water, up to 50% sea-water, or to guarantee an adequate urine production, from 50% sea-water to pure sea-water.
6. It is suggested that when a man is stranded at sea it is not advisable to drink all the fresh water and then be compelled to drink sea-water when dehydrated.
7. It is better to slowly increase the sea-water uptake. This will prolong the time before sea-water needs to be drunk and result in only minor metabolic changes. Return to fresh water will be followed by an immediate return to normal homeostasis.